General Overview of Arthritis

A remastered overview of all the different arthritides - including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

Video Duration: 15 minutes

  • Osteoarthritis
    Created by Emily
    General
    Epidemiology

    Degenerative joint disease with articular surface degeneration, formation of new bone and secondary inflammation. Affects over 80% of the population at some point.

    Pathology

    Repeated microtrauma damages the cartilage in weight bearing joints, eventually exposing the subchondral bone. Chondrocytes attempt repair, resulting in osteophytes and sclerosis. The synovial membrane becomes inflamed and produces an effusion. Primary or secondary.

    Top three causes

    1. Obesity

    2. Gender (female)

    3. Heredity

    Clinical Features
    Symptoms

    General:

    • Restricted activities of daily living

    Specific:

    • Joint pain
    • Swelling
    • Morning stiffness (< 30 mins)
    • Deformity
    Signs
    • Crepitus
    • Restricted movement
    • Bony enlargement
    • Joint effusion and inflammation
    • Bony instability and muscle wasting
    Investigations
    Cultures

    None

    Bloods

    None

    Imaging

    X-ray:

    1. Loss of joint space

    2. Osteophytes

    3. Sclerosis

    4. Subchondral cysts

    Scopic/Biopsy

    Arthroscopy - reveals early fissuring and erosion of cartilage

    Functional

    None

    Treatment
    Conservative
    • Social care e.g. walking aids
    • Lifestyle advice - weight loss, exercise, avoid impact loading activities
    Medical
    • Analgesia - topical NSAIDs, codeine, paracetamol
    • Physiotherapy
    • Glucosamine
    • Corticosteroid injections
    Surgical
    • Arthroplasty
    • Joint fusion
    • Joint excision
    • Realignment surgery