Lung Cancer

An overview of the basics of lung cancer.

 

Lecture by

Video Duration: 9 minutes

  • Lung Carcinoma
    Created by Dr Ed Wallitt
    General
    Epidemiology

    Second most common cancer

    Pathology

    Malignant neoplasm in the lungs

    Divided into:

    • Small cell carcinoma
    • Non small cell carcinoma (SCC, adenocarcinoma, large cell)

    TNM staging

    Top three causes

    SMOKING!

    Asbestos

    Radon gas

    Clinical Features
    Symptoms

    GENERAL

    • Weight loss
    • Fatigue


    SPECIFIC

    Obstructive (affecting the airways)

    • Cough
    • Wheeze
    • Dyspnoea
    • Haemoptysis

    Local invasion

    • Chest pain (chest wall invasion)
    • Horner's syndrome (invasion of a Pancoast's tumour i.e. apical lung tumour into the sympathetic trunk
    Signs

    GENERAL

    • Clubbing
    • Cachexia
    • Anaemia of chronic disease


    SPECIFIC

    • Lobar collapse/consolidation
    • Pleural effusion
    • Horner's syndrome
    • Hand wasting (first thoracic nerve invasion)
    • Facial oedema (SVC obstruction
    Investigations
    Cultures

    Sputum or pleural fluid cytology

    Bloods

    FBC

    LFTs (liver metastases)

    Imaging

    CXR

    CT chest, abdomen and pelvis (staging)

    Bone scan (bone metastases)

    Scopic/Biopsy

    Bronchoscopy + biopsy

    Functional

    Lung function tests (important for surgical planning)

    Treatment
    Conservative

    Analgesia

    Palliative

    MDT discussion

    Medical

    Radiotherapy

    Chemotherapy

    Surgical

    Surgical resection